Historical data and projections presented in this policy brief reveal that Europe faces serious challenges from a complex interplay between demographic change, migration, weak growth and productivity and unemployment.
For many countries, however, fears over demographic change and ageing may be overstated. For some, problems of unemployment and under-employment are a more significant challenge to living standards, well-being and social stability. In others, high levels of net inward migration mean that demographic pressures are postponed. Instead, these countries face problems of ensuring that housing, infrastructure and public services are sufficient to cope with rising populations.
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